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science Archives - GED TESTING IN SECAUCUS
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B-Cell Development

B-cells develop in the bone marrow.  The development of the B-cell in the bone marrow is where the B-cell develops it's immunoglobulin gene that it expresses on the surface.  B-cell development begins there with heavy chain gene formation with the genes heavy V and heavy DJ.  Say it hasn't rearranged the light chain yet.  A [...]

By | 2017-08-31T18:19:49+00:00 August 31st, 2017|science|0 Comments

How Viruses Enter Cells

Virus particles are too large to diffuse across the plasma membrane.  Receptors are needed to get viruses into cells.  Then, the genome can be transferred inside the cell. Only viruses of fungi, that have no extracellular phases; and viruses of plants, which enter cells by mechanical damage, don't utilize receptors to enter the cells.  One [...]

By | 2017-08-01T17:54:06+00:00 August 1st, 2017|science|0 Comments

Virus Structure

Nucleocapsids are nucleic acids complexed with the protein within a virus.  To grasp how small viruses are, a polio virus is 30 nanometers.  The viruses have spikes on their outside.  Tobacco mosaic viruses are round shaped viruses.  Many capsid proteins can reassemble into virus like proteins (VLPs).  Hepatitits B-Virus (HBV) and Human Papilloma-Virus (HPV) vaccines [...]

By | 2017-08-01T17:52:48+00:00 August 1st, 2017|science|0 Comments


In the 1980’s, William Coley, a surgeon at New York Memorial ( now known as Sloan Kettering Memorial Cancer Center) observed that some patients infected during surgery could reject their tumors.  He noted that killed Strep. pyogenes and Serratia Marcescens (which he named Coley’s Toxin) could lead to similar rejection of tumor cells.  He famously [...]

By | 2017-07-17T23:43:12+00:00 July 17th, 2017|science|0 Comments


Ever since the Apollo project at NASA had been completed, scientists and engineers have been seeking support for a Mars program which would first provide manned space travel to Mars from Earth; and subsequently even provide living quarters on the planet Mars.  It has been projected that these living quarters be constructed similar to domes [...]

By | 2017-07-17T23:41:15+00:00 July 17th, 2017|science|0 Comments

Replacing Heart Valves Without Open Cardiac Surgery

Transcatheter  valves are actually in the majority of recent valve replacement procedures today.  This can be achieved without open heart surgery.  Coronary intervention involves opening the coronary arteries on the the surface of the heart, which has been done for years.  Two-thirds of the arteries open after receiving various pharmaceuticals, leaving a third of the [...]

By | 2017-07-13T18:31:32+00:00 July 13th, 2017|science|0 Comments

The Theory Behind Antisense Oligonucleotide Therapy

As you are probably aware, antisense oligonucleotides are synthetic single-stranded chains  of nucleic acids that bind to RNA (ribonucleic  acid) ; and in doing so alter the  or reduce the expression of the target RNA.  They reduce expression of mutant proteins and restore expression of wild type proteins. Anti-sense oligonucleotides also are known to interfere [...]

By | 2017-07-13T18:30:56+00:00 July 13th, 2017|science|0 Comments

Radiation Oncology

The linear accelerator was developed by Henry Kaplan at Stanford University.  The treatment of malignant and non-malignant conditions was limited by skin toxicities.  Linear accelerators generate high energy treatment regimens.  The physician must examine the patient and determine if the cancer patient should be treated with radiation therapy.  He must work up a good case [...]

By | 2017-07-11T16:49:34+00:00 July 11th, 2017|science|0 Comments